Introduction to Image Processing

Eric SchlesEric Schles

Image processing is about applying mathematics to pictures. It's no different than any other part of computer science, except the data structures are different than many other domains.

Image processing, or at least the techniques we'll see today, cover much of the same material as any machine learning course:

Getting data into OpenCV

Before we start with any of the material, we'll first need to understand how to read in and write out images with OpenCV:

Reading/Writing images:

import cv2  
img = cv2.imread("opencv_logo.png")  

Cleaning our data - Filtering

Then, to be able to apply techniques such as facial recognition, we need to filter our data and make sure it is good enough to be used by our models.


Filtering is the process of taking an image as input and performing a set of mathematical operations to change the image in a way that is more useable programmatically.

Example 1 - gray scaling

Gray scaling is important and useful for a number of reasons - one is that it makes processing images much, much faster.

import cv2  
image = cv2.imread('opencv_logo.png')  
gray_image = cv2.cvtColor(image, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)  

Gray scale reference

Example 2 - resizing

import cv2

image = cv2.imread("opencv_logo.png")  
resized_image = cv2.resize(image, (100, 50))  

Resizing images is useful for a number of reasons. The easiest to understand is that it makes processing images much, much faster.

Example 3 - Smoothing

import cv2  
import numpy as np  
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt

img = cv2.imread('opencv_logo.png')

kernel = np.ones((5,5),np.float32)/25  
dst = cv2.filter2D(img,-1,kernel)

plt.xticks([]), plt.yticks([])  
plt.xticks([]), plt.yticks([])  

Reference for the code

As you can see, making use of OpenCV in Python is extremely easy. Here we do a 2D filter on the image and a simple 2D convolution. We do this by applying a kernel, which is just a matrix, and then we apply it to each pixel with a 5x5 window around the pixel that is averaged. The overall effect is the image is blurred, as show in the results of running the filter over the original image.

Other methods of filtering include:

Facial recognition

Now that we know how to read in our images, let's have some fun! Facial recognition is among the greatest achievements of computation. We glean so much information from faces - identity, emotion, age. Our minds are made to see extremely nuanced details in faces. Mostly because they are extremely complex, with many, many muscles that explain extremely complex emotions, without a single word.

The true power of OpenCV is it's ability to make the task of facial recognition easy.

import cv2  
from PIL import Image  
import os  
cascPath = "haarcascade_frontalface_default.xml"  
faceCascade = cv2.CascadeClassifier(cascPath)

# Read the image
imagePath = os.path.abspath("person.jpg")  
image = cv2.imread(imagePath)  
gray = cv2.cvtColor(image, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)

# Detect faces in the image
faces = faceCascade.detectMultiScale(  
    minSize=(100, 100),
    flags =

for (x,y,w,h) in faces:  
    cv2.rectangle(image, (x,y), (x+w, y+h), (0,255,0), 2)
    cv2.imshow("faces found", image)

reference for haar cascade

Face detection with OpenCV2 is extremely easy. All that is required is loading the haarcascade, and then calling detectMultiScale with a few parameters.

The haar cascade:

The notion is actually quite simple. The haarcascadefrontalfacedefault.xml file contains a ton of features that have been decided as belonging to a front-facing face. The algorithm goes through and checks each block in the picture - set with minSize for these features. There are 6000 in total, so that's a ton of computation. To speed things up, they also built in a detection system that looks first for areas that have no faces. So if we detect "no face" in a given region in the picture, the detection scheme moves on or "cascades" to the next region in the image. This allows the process to be extremely fast, extremely accurate (95% on good pictures), and extremely easy to use.

An indepth facial recognition example:

import cv2  
import cv  
import numpy as np  
from glob import glob  
import os

ave_confidence = 0  
num_recognizers = 3  
recog = {}  
recog["eigen"] = cv2.createEigenFaceRecognizer()  
recog["fisher"] = cv2.createFisherFaceRecognizer()  
recog["lbph"] = cv2.createLBPHFaceRecognizer()

# load the data initial file
filename = os.path.abspath("person.jpg")  
face = cv.LoadImage(filename, cv2.IMREAD_GRAYSCALE)  
face,label = face[:, :], 1

# load comparison face
compare = os.path.abspath("black_widow.jpg")  
compare_face = cv.LoadImage(compare, cv2.IMREAD_GRAYSCALE)  
compare_face, compare_label = compare_face[:,:], 2

images,labels = [],[]  

image_array = np.asarray(images)  
label_array = np.asarray(labels)  
for recognizer in recog.keys():  

#generate test data
test_images = glob("testing/*.jpg")  
test_images = [(np.asarray(cv.LoadImage(img,cv2.IMREAD_GRAYSCALE)[:,:]),img) for img in test_images]  
for t_face,name in test_images:  
    t_labels = []
    for recognizer in recog.keys():
        [label, confidence] = recog[recognizer].predict(t_face)
        print "match found",name, confidence, recognizer

Object recognition

Object detection is really just a generalized case of facial recognition. All you need to do is apply a different xml file and you'll get what you need. In an effort to not just show you the same technique over and over again, let's go over some other ways we can detect objects using OpenCV.

Corner detection

import cv2  
import numpy as np

filename = 'chessboard.png'  
img = cv2.imread(filename)  
gray = cv2.cvtColor(img,cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)

gray = np.float32(gray)  
dst = cv2.cornerHarris(gray,2,3,0.04)

# result is dilated for marking the corners, not important
dst = cv2.dilate(dst,None)

# Threshold for an optimal value, it may vary depending on the image.

if cv2.waitKey(0) & 0xff == 27:  

This technique is exactly what it sounds like - making use of the an algorithm invented by Harris, we find the corners within this chessboard.


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Eric Schles

Eric Schles